Chlamydia infection is a group of infectious diseases caused by various chlamydia infections. It can cause uterine infection, premature birth, miscarriage, urethral infection, pneumonia, bronchitis, gastroenteritis, encephalomyelitis, conjunctivitis and arthritis.
Chlamydia is the only cytoplasmic prokaryote that has a strict two-stage reproductive cycle. It is divided into two stages: extracellular stage and proliferative intracellular stage. It can be divided into chlamydia trachomatis, chlamydia parrots, chlamydia pneumoniae, chlamydia oryzae oryzae, and chlamydia oryzae oryzae. After chlamydia infection, it first invades the columnar epithelial cells and grows and multiplies in the cells, and then enters the cells of the mononuclear macrophage system to proliferate. As chlamydia proliferated in cells, infected cells died, and the host immune defense function was evaded, and intermittent protection was obtained. The pathogenic mechanism of chlamydia is to inhibit the metabolism of infected cells, dissolve and destroy cells, and lead to the release of lysozyme. The specific immunity obtained after infection is weak, the duration is short and the infection is easy to be repeated. Incomplete removal can cause persistent infection. In addition, there are a large number of asymptomatic recessive infections.
(1) smear microscopy
: the conjunctiva, cervical swab or scraper of the eye can be used for smear, and the secretion of secretion can be removed by the fiberoptic bronchoscope of lower respiratory infection or the chlamydia trachomatis inclusion body in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells can be detected by the smear. The method is simple, but the detection rate is less than 30%.
(2)the detection of chlamydia antigen in clinical samples by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
is sensitive, simple and fast, but it has a cross reaction with bacteria, which can lead to false positive, especially nasopharyngeal specimens.
2. Nucleic acid detection
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used to detect chlamydia DNA and can directly identify chlamydia species and types from samples. Nucleic acid probe was used to detect chlamydia DNA in biopsy specimen.
3. Antibody detection
Patients with no complications of reproductive tract infection can produce low titer antibodies. About 20% of patients with acute chlamydia urethritis do not produce antibodies. Commonly used are:
(1) the complement combination test
is suitable for the diagnosis of venereal lymphogranuloma, parrot fever and chlamydia pneumoniae infection with low sensitivity.
(2) micro-indirect immunofluorescence assay
is one of the most sensitive methods to diagnose chlamydia pneumoniae infection. Acute infection can be diagnosed if double serum titer increases by 4 times, or single serum IgM antibody titer is greater than 1:16, or IgG antibody titer is greater than 1:512.
(3) direct fluorescence antibody assay
can detect various types of chlamydia specimens. This method is sensitive, specific and fast, and is a highly operational and practical diagnostic technique.
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